Sunday, March 11, 2012

How airspace is constructed and controlled

Key 1:

The airport tower controls the aircraft on the ground before takeoff and then about 5 miles from the tower, when the tower transfers aircraft control to a terminal Radar Approach Control facility (TRACON). Controllers I the airport tower either watch the aircraft without technical aids or use radar Airport Surface Detection Equipment for aircraft on the surface and airport surveillance radar for those in the air. Central Flow Control can order the tower to hold flights on the ground id demand exceeds capacity at the arrival airport.

Key 2:

The TRACON which may be located in the same building as the airport tower, controls aircraft from about 15 miles to about 30 miles from the airport, using aircraft position information from the aircraft surveillance radar. The TRACON the transfers control to an Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC).

Key 3:

ARTCCs control aircraft that are en route between departure and arrival airports. Each ARTCC controls a specific region of airspace and control is handed off from one ARTCC to another when a boundary is crossed. Aircraft positions are detected by the air route to an Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC).

Key 4:

The TRACON controls the arriving aircraft until it is within about 5 miles of the arrival airport tower, when control is transferred to the tower.

Key 5:

The airport tower controls the aircraft on the final portion of its approach to the airport and while it is on the ground.

Friday, February 24, 2012

What is the different between accident and incident?

Accident is an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft that takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and the time all such persons have disembarked and which any person suffers a fatal injury, serious injury or the aircraft receives substantial damage. On another part, incident has to happen first like a symptom before sick. Incident is an occurrence other than accident associated with the operation of an aircraft that affects or could affect the safety operations. Incidents are events that can be defined as near to accidents. All accidents started as near accidents.

Accident can cause a fatal injury, serious injury and substantial damage to the aircraft. Fatal injury results in death within 30 days. The examples of fatal injury are on Malaysia Airlines (MAS) flight 653 crashed at Tanjung Kupang, Johor on 4th December 1977. It was the deadliest and first fatal accident for MAS with all 93 passengers and 7 crew was killed. The flight was apparently hijacked when it reach cruised altitude. On another view, substantial damage affects structural strength of aircraft, performance or flight characteristic that need major replacement of affected components. Another example is on 15th September 1995 when Malaysia Airlines (MAS) flight 2133, a Fokker-50 crashed during approach in Tawau, Sabah due to pilot error and 34 people were killed. According to investigation report, the accident was probably caused by the pilot’s poor in flight decision making and failure to follow standard operating procedures. The report also pointed out the failure of the co-pilot to alert the captain of unsafe manoeuvre or take over control of the aircraft.

The various combinations of possibly unsafe acts and conditions that occur each day usually end as incidents rather than accidents. The examples of incidents is Malaysia Airlines flight-124 on 1st August 2005, a Boeing 777-200ER departed Perth for Kuala Lumpur. Climbing through 38,000 feet a faulty accelerometer caused the aircraft's Air Data Inertial Reference Unit (ADIRU) to command changes of altitude. The flight crew overrode the ADIRU and manually returned to land the aircraft at Perth. Subsequent NTSB investigation led the US FAA to issue emergency airworthiness directive 2005-18-51 on the fly-by-wire software. Another example is on 2nd October 2009, MAS Boeing 737-400 (9M-MMR) was substantially damaged when the port main undercarriage collapsed while the aircraft was parked at the gate at Kuching Airport.

Tuesday, February 21, 2012

Changes in marketing environment affects the airline industry

The classification of marketing environment distinguishes between PESTE Analysis which are politic, economic, social, technology and environment. Airlines business will affect when there are changes in PESTE. As early example, let’s look into what happens to Syria now. Before this in a year 2009, Syria tourism has accounted for 11 per cent of Syria's gross domestic product (GDP) and Syria is received 5.4 million visitors per year on average. A lot of interesting places can be visited in Syria such as Damascus City, Aleppo, Qala’ah Al-Husun and Homs. However, political uncertainty in Syria have caused many people are afraid to come to Syria. Even the death of civilians, children and women has also increased and showed that Syria is not safe to visit. The crisis has badly affected the Syrian Airline business, with many passengers in and out of Damascus reporting almost empty planes. Tourism has been the hardest hit of Syria's industries since the unrest began in March 2011. Syrian tourism minister, Lamia Aasi said tourism in May and June 2011 was down 60 per cent compared with the same period in 2010.

From the example above, it show political stability of the country is very important. Politic influenced the marketing strategy by showing other examples. Syrian Arab Airline has announced Asia plans to open new routes to India and China while dropping services to Europe for "commercial reasons". Other routes like Marseille and Milan will be suspended for economic feasibility considerations because they are not profitable. Vice versa, if a country’s position in political stable, they will attract more inbound passengers to the country and boost up the country economy. A good example is Malaysia. Although there were some riots happened, but it was not as bad as Middle East. It is proved by the increase in passenger movements at Malaysia Airports in the last eight years. The illustration one below shows the increase in passenger movements at Malaysia Airport Holding Berhad from 2003 to 2010.

On another side, political will also give impacts to the airline when government issued new rules and regulations. The latest situation that will relate is the new European Union (EU) carbon tax. Many countries opposed the EU carbon charges like China, India, Brazil and South Africa because it makes extra costs to the airlines. This caused airlines to raise ticket prices and a burden to passengers. China argues it is unreasonable to apply the levy to developing nations and wants the costs of reducing carbon to be passed on to aircraft manufacturers. In Singapore Air Show 2012, Singapore Airlines CEO, Goh Choon Phong said that ‘’we are objecting to the principle of how it is being applied, that it is applied to flights outside of Europe, to airspace outside Europe.’’ Furthermore, Cathay Pacific CEO of Hong Kong said that ‘’when people go it alone whether for good reasons or bad, troubles come and difficulties arise’’ Airlines opposed to the system say it would cost the industry 17.5 billion euros ($23.2 billion) over eight years.

Instead of airlines business making money, they also have social responsibilities to the public. For example, MASwings realises the importance of air transport to the community in Ba’kelalan, Sarawak and has always focused on providing safe, reliable and affordable services. As a Rural Air Service (ARS) operator, MASwings faced various operational constraints and resources including the limited number of Twin-Otter aircraft used for its operations into the Short Take Off and Landing (STOL) ports such as Ba’Kelalan, Bario, Long Akah, Long Banga, Long Seridan and Long Lellang. Although the RAS is not profitable to MASwings, but as a responsibility to the community, they still provides the operation to rural areas.

Moving to economic part, no industry has suffered greater economic damage from the terrorist’s attacks of 11 September 2001 than the US airline industry. The attacks caused many travellers to reduce or to avoid air travel. Illustration 2 shows decreasing in demand for passengers to travel during economic recession in US.

Sources: Journal of Economic and Business (2005)

On another part, infrastructure is one of the factors that influenced marketing environment. The needed of infrastructures in air transport simply because to accommodate growth in demand. When the government provided a large airport, the larger capacity passengers can inbound to the country. As for example, Survarnabhumi Airport, Thailand can accommodates 100 million passengers per annum while KLIA, Malaysia can only accommodates 40 million passengers per annum. Survarnabhumi Airport can provide services to 90 airlines while KLIA only can serve 58 airlines at this a point of time. Therefore, the larger infrastructure constructed the larger potential to cater the demand in air transport services.

In social factor, we have to learned countries characteristic to find business opportunities. Trends can be changed through changing tasted in holidays and also change in lifestyle. People will go on holiday if the economic is stable and financially incapacitated. Social and economic are interrelated to each other. A good example is Korean Tourism was booming because of Korean drama, Winter Sonata. Many tourists want to come to the Nami Island, the location where the Winter Sonata played. In additions, people would travels because of special interests like golfers, cyclists and medical. Golfers would be interested if they know the location of the golf courses is beautiful. They are going to play and money does not matter to them. Malaysia has organized Le Tour de Langkawi (LTDL) for several years. Therefore, I’m sure many cycling fans all around the world will come to Malaysia to support their pro cycling teams, continental teams and also country teams in LTDL.

Technology growth appears to be the driver in building a mutually satisfying air travel experience, from departure to arrival. The trend online buying allows passengers the freedom to do comparison and book a flight through the internet. For the airlines, it will reduce distribution costs. SITA’s 7th Airline IT Trends Survey found that more than 70% of airline tickets are now sold by the internet. It also found that more passengers will be using Web check-in and 60% of airlines will be using bar-coded boarding passes. In addition, new aircraft technology increased competitions between the airlines. On long-haul trips, Boeing’s 787 offered a wide windows as well as innovative seating for passengers, airframe materials, quitter engines, lower operating costs and fuel efficiencies for airlines. In low cost-carrier (LCC), JetBlue Airways was the frontrunner in installing video screens in every seatback and offering DirecTV services while AirTran is offering XM Satellite Radio. There is a growing demand especially on long-haul flights for the availability of communications technology.

Besides that, now airlines rely on eCommerce for many purposes. One primary benefit is it reduces the number of employees needed. Airlines save money through lower costs for reservations, sales offices, advertising, and agent fees and commissions. The cost savings are sufficient enough that they encourage customers to book flights online and penalize customers when they don't. Furthermore, airlines can save time when customers book their own flights. When fewer people tying up the phone lines, airlines can give better service to those who need help.

Online check-in also saves time by reducing the workload of the ticket agents. Another time-saver for both the airline and the customer is the use of e-tickets, printed at home or at an airport kiosk. Online booking makes it easier to offer additional services such as car rentals, hotel rooms, and vacation packages without resorting to high-pressure sales tactics. This is an opportunities for airline parallel with technology advancement. Airline ticket sites like Priceline, Travelocity and Expedia provide more opportunities for airlines to sell tickets. Airlines can offer discounted tickets based on availability. Last but not least, eCommerce is simplified management of rewards programs with online booking. Customers can enter their rewards information and track their miles and rewards online. Customers are also more likely to sign up for a rewards program online than if they have to fill in a paper form.

The environmental impact of aviation because of aircraft engines emit noise, particulates and gases which contribute to climate change. Aircraft engines release carbon dioxide (CO2) that contributing to climate change. CO2 released by most aircraft in flight through the burning fuel such as turbine aircraft and piston aircraft. Airlines have been alleged as responsible for carbon emission contributing to the global warming. Carbon emission tax has been imposing on all airlines arriving Europe that make further increasing cost.

Environment and technology are interrelated to each other. IATA has a vision for aviation industry to achieve carbon neutral growth in the medium term and to build a plane that produces no emissions within 50 years. Although complete solutions are not available today, but new materials and designs, alternative fuels, and solar power already exists. Airlines have improved fuel efficiency and CO2 performance by 14% over the past 10 years. They will continue to improve, by investing in new aircraft and enhancing operations. By technology, today's aircraft are 50% quieter than 10 years ago.

Alternative fuels particularly sustainable biofuels, have been identified as one of the key elements in helping achieve the goal to reduce CO2 emissions. Biofuels derived from sustainable oil crops such as jatropha, camelina and algae or from wood and waste biomass can reduce the overall carbon footprint by around 80% over their full lifecycle. Biofuels test flights carried out by seven airlines have proven biofuels work and can be mixed with existing jet fuel. The industry is now working on finalizing technical certification so biofuels can be used for passenger flights.

Finally, over exploitation of tourism spots in various countries affect the destination selling of the airline. In the early days, Penang Island favored by the tourists from abroad especially from Australia to sunbathe on the beautiful beach. After 10 to 15 years, a lot of development has been carried out and caused many parts of the island diminished. The original beauty of island has been lost as a result of human greed to pursue profit. Airline also affected by the over exploitation of tourism spots. People from abroad preferred to travel by air transport services for holidays. However, if the tourism spots no longer attractive, airline will face difficulties to selling the tickets to such places as travelers are no longer there.

Thursday, January 5, 2012



Semasa Nabi Muhammad menyampaikan seruannya secara sulit, tidak terdapat sebarang bentuk penentangan yang ketara dari kaum Quraisy. Semasa seruan mula dijalankan kepada keluarga Abdul Mutalib, penentangan hanya timbul daripada kalangan kaum kerabat baginda sendiri. Kaum Quraisy yang lain pula menganggapnya sebagai masalah dalaman keluarga Bani Hasyim yang boleh diselesaikan sesama mereka sendiri. Namun setelah seruan secara terbuka dijalankan dan ia mendapat sambutan di luar dugaan dan setelah Nabi Muhammad mula menyentuh soal-soal penyembahan dan ajaran nenek moyang mereka, maka kaum Quraisy mula bimbang lantas mengadakan pelbagai usaha untuk mebendung perkembangan Islam.

Sebab Penentangan


Dalam politik orang Arab khususnya politik kota Mekah, perebutan kuasa sudah menjadi teras politik mereka. Hal ini dapat dibuktikan dan pentadbiran kota Mekah yang pada mulanya dikuasai oleh Puak Amaliqah, kemudian oleh puak Jurhum, diikuti oleh puak Khuzaah dan akhirnya puak Quraisy. Muhammad adalah dari kaum Quraisy yang berketurunan Bani Hasyim. Bani-bani lain dari kaum Quraisy terutamanya Bami Umayyah mahu kuasa pentadbiran Mekah berada di tangan mereka. Menerima ajaran Islam seolah-olah mereka tunduk di bawah Bani Hasyim. Keunggulan peribadi Muhammad yang terkenal sebagai seorang yang amanah dan mempunyai budi pekerti yang tinggi membimbangkan bani-bani lain. Sekiranya Muhammad berjaya menjadi pemimpin, mereka bimbang kuasa kepimpinan tersebut akan dipegangnya dan ini menyebabkan bani lain tidak lagi berpeluang meletakkan diri mereka sebagai pemimpin. Tanggapan ini timbul akibat dari kekeliruan orang Musyirikin tentang konsep kenabian dan kepimpinan.


Pengharaman berhala akan menyebabkan kedudukan musyirikin Mekah terjejas. Agama Islam menentang penyembahan berhala kerana ia dianggap syirik. Pengharaman ini akan menyebabkan pengukir patung, peniaga berhala dan juga penjaga Kaabah kehilangan sumber pendapatan.

Penentangan orang musyirikin juga disebabkan agama Islam yang dibawa oleh Nabi menentang penjualan hamba abdi. Orang musyirikin yang menpunyai kedudukan tinggi biasanya memiliki hamba yang ramai, malah bilangan hamba dikatakan melambangkan status seseorang. Mereka menggunakan tenaga hamba dengan percuma bagi membantu dalam kegiatan ekonomi. Pengharaman hamba sudah pasti akan menjejaskan kedudukan ekonomi mereka.

Orang musyirikin juga bimbang kedudukan Mekah sebagai pusat perdagangan, pusat ibadat dan pusat kebudayaan akan terjejas dengan kedatangan Islam. Mereka percaya Mekah maju disebabkan adanya patung-patung berhala yang diletakkan di sekeliling Kaabah. Sekiranya patung-patung itu dibuang, mereka bimbang orang ramai tidak lagi mengunjungi Mekah.


Menurut Islam, manusia akan dibangkitkan semula untuk diberi pembalasan terhadap perbuatan baik dan buruk yang dilakukan di dunia. Orang musyirikin yang sememangnya sentiasa melakukan perbuatan buruk seperti berzina, membunuh anak dan sebagainya takut akan pembalasan yang akan diterima nanti. Hal ini disebabkan mereka tidak faham tentang konsep taubat dalam ajaran Islam.

Ajaran Islam mengganggap semua manusia adalah sama tanpa mengira bangsa atau pangkat. Yang berbeza hanya dari segi ketaqwaannya. Menerima Islam bererti mereka akan meletakkan taraf mereka sama dengan golongan hamba. Golongan musyirikin juga menentang konsep persaudaraan Islam. Mereka turut menentang segala amalan sosial yang dianjurkan oleh Islam seharian kerana ia bertentangan dengan kehidupan biasa mereka.

Agama Islam sangat bertentangan dengan ajaran nenek moyang mereka. Orang musyirikin sangat kuat berpegang kepada tradisi nenek moyang atau sunnah. Mereka bimbang jika mereka menerima Islam, mereka akan melanggar adat tradisi mereka dan akan dimakan sumpah.

Golongan musyirikin menentang Islam kerana perbezaan dasar agama dan ketuhanan. Islam ialah agama monteisme. Sebaliknya, kaum Quraisy menyembah tuhan-tuahn berhala daripada pelbagai jenis dan bentuk. Malah mereka menganggap lagi bahawa penyembahan berala ialah mendekatkan lagi diri kepada Allah.

Cara Penentangan

Perang Saraf

Orang musyirikin melemparkan pelbagai tuduhan terhadap Nabi dengan harapan masyarakat Arab tidak terpengaruh dengan dakwah yang disampaikan. Mereka mengatakan Nabi gila, penipu, ahli sihir dan tamak. Sungguhpun begitu, semua tuduhan itu tidak memberi apa-apa kesan kepada Nabi, malah telah menimbulkan rasa ingin tahu di kalangan masyarakat Arab. Mereka datang berjumpa dengan Nabi bagi memastikan dakwaan itu benar atau tidak dan ini menguntungkan Nabi.

Menyeksa Nabi dan Orang Islam

Pada peringkat awal, seksaan hanya ditujukan kepada pengikut Nabi, terutamanya golongan lemah seperti golongan miskin dan hamba. Antara yang paling teruk menerima seksaan ialah Bilal Bin Rabbah. Beliau telah dijemur di tengah panas tanpa diberi makan atau minum. Seksaan ini sedikit pun tidak mengubah pendirian beliau. Oleh sebab seksaan ini tidak memberi kesan, mereka pun mulai menyeksa Nabi dengan meletak najis di rumah Nabi, di sujut Nabi dan meletakkan duri di tempat yang dilalui Nabi.

Menawarkan Kekayaan

Orang musyirikin telah mengemukakan pelbagai tawaran bagi memujuk Nabi supaya meninggalkan tugas-tugas dakwah. Antaranya termasuklah harta kekayaan, pangkat dan wanita-wanita cantik. Nabi bukan sahaja menolak tawaran tersebut tetapi telah menjawab dengan tegas sambil mengatakan,"Sekiranya orang musyirikin berjaya meletakkan matahari di sebelah kiri dan bulan di sebelah kanan, tetapi Nabi tetap tidak akan berganjak."

Meminta Kerjasama Abu Talib

Apabila semua tindakan yang diambil tidak berkesan, orang musyirikin menemui Abu Talib dan meminta beliau menasihati Nabi. Permintaan tersebut tidak dipedulikan. Mereka juga pernah meminta untuk menukarkan Muhammad dengan seorang pemuda lain yang setanding dengannya.

Memulaukan Bani Hasyim

Orang musyirikin akhirnya mengadakan pakatan untuk memulau Bani Hasyim dan semua umat Islam. Pemulauan ini dilakukan dalam tempoh 10 tahun. Dalam tempoh tersebut, mereka enggan mengadakan sebarang perhubungan termasuklah jual beli, bercakap, ziarah-menziarahi dan sebagainya. Orang-orang Islam telah mengalami penderitaan yang teruk dan ketika inilah 2 orang pendokong kuat Nabi iaitu Khadijah dan Abu Talib telah meninggal dunia. Pemulauan ini hanya dilakukan dalam tempoh 3 tahun kerana tidak semua orang musyirikin bersetuju dengan tindakan tersebut.

Merancang Pembunuhan Nabi

Apabila orang musyirikin gagal menyekat usaha Nabi, mereka akhirnya bersepakat untuk membunuh Nabi. Beberapa orang pemuda telah dipilih untuk melaksanakan tugas tersebut. Rancangan ini telah diberitahu oleh Allah kepada Nabi melalui wahyu. Oleh itu, pada malam rumah dikepung, Nabi ditemani oleh Abu Bakar telah keluar tanpa disedari oleh orang musyirikin. Sebelum bertolak ke Mekah, Nabi dan Abu Bakar telah bersembunyi di Gua Ihur selama 3 hari.

Memerangi Orang Islam

Setelah Nabi dan orang Islam berhijrah ke Madinah, orang musyirikin telah berasa tidak puas hati. Oleh itu, mereka telah melancarkan serangan ke atas orang Islam. Terdapat 3 peperangan penting yang berlaku iaitu Perang Badar, Perang Uhud dan Perang Khadak (Ahzab).

Cara Nabi Menghadapinya


Pada peringkat awal, Nabi meminta orang Islam supaya bersabar menghadapi tindakan dari orang musyirikin. Mereka diminta jangan bertindak balas bagi mengelakkan pertelingkahan yang lebih besar. Lagipun belum ada wahyu yang membenarkan orang-orang Islam bertindak balas.

Membebaskan Hamba

Nabi menggalakkan orang Islam yang berharta untuk membebaskan hamba yang telah diseksa dengan teruk oleh tuan-tuan mereka. Antara sahabat yang menyahut seruan ini termasuklah Abu Bakar yang telah menebus dan seterusnya membebaskan Bilal Bin Rabah dari tuannya Umayyah Bin Khalaf.

Berlindung di Bawah Orang yang Berpengaruh

Bagi mengelakkan peyeksaan orang musyirikin Mekah, Nabi dan orang-orang Islam telah mendapatkan perlindungan dari orang yang berpengaruh dalam masyarakat Quraisy. Nabi sendiri misalnya telah diberikan perlindungan oleh bapa saudaranya Abu Talib.

Berhijrah ke Habsyah

Apabila orang musyirikin menunjukkan penentangan yang semakin hebat, maka Nabi mengarahkan orang-orang Islam supaya berhijrah ke Habsyah. Al-Najasyi yang memerintah Habsyah ialah seorang pemerintah yang baik dan sanggup melindungi orng Islam. Penghijrahan ke Habsyah dilakukan sebanyak 2 kali. Kali pertama berlaku pada tahun ke-6 selepas kerasulan Nabi. Ia diketuai oleh Uthman Bin Affan. Seramai 10 lelaki dan 5 perempuan terlibat. Pada tahun berikutnya, seramai 83 lelaki dan 18 perempuan yang diketuai oleh Jaafar Abu Talib telah berhijrah ke Habsyah.

Berundur ke Taif

Sebelum berlakunya Bai'at Aqabah, Nabi dan anak angkatnya Zald Bin Harithah telah pergi ke Taif untuk berdakwah kepada Bani Thaqif tetapi penduduk Taif mempunyai hubungan yang rapat dengan orang Quraisy di Mekah. Oleh itu, mereka menolak mentah-mentah dakwah yang disampaikan. Malah mereka mengupah kanak-kanak untuk mencederakan Nabi.

Bai'at Aqabah

Setalah Nabi gagal menyampaikan dakwah di Taif dan kepada penduduk Mekah, Nabi berusaha menemui orang-orang luar yang datang ke Mekah pada musim Haji. Hasilnya, pada tahun 11 selepas kerasulan Nabi, Bai'at Aqabah I telah berjaya diadakan. Hal ini diikuti pada tahun berikutnya dengan Bai'at Aqabah II. Melalui Bai'at Aqabah II, Nabi dan orang Islam dijemput ke Yathrib (Madinah).

Hijrah ke Yathrib

Pada tahun ke-13 selepas kerasulan Nabi, Nabi bersama orang Islam telah berhijrah ke Yathrib bagi mengelakkan tindakan yang lebih keras dilakukan oleh orang musyirikin Mekah. Hijrah ini dilakukan secara bersembunyi. Dengan hijrah ini, peluang bagi orang musyirikin untuk menghalang usaha penyebaran Islam gagal.


Setelah 2 tahun Nabi berhijrah, turun wahyu yang membenarkan orang Islam berperang bagi mempertahankan diri dan agama. Oleh itu, di dalam Perang Badar yang berlaku pada tahun 2 Hijrah, orang Islam telah mencapai kemenangan yang besar. Kemenangan ini kemudiannya telah menyebabkan orang musyirikin melancarkan serang kedua pada 3 Hijrah yang berakhir dengan kekalahan tentera Islam. Pada 5 Hijrah, orang musyirikin sekali lagi membentuk pasukan tentera bersekutu yang bukan sahaja melibatkan orang musyirikin Mekah, tetapi juga golongan Yahudi, Munafik, kabilah-kabilah Arab kecil seperti Bani Asad, Bani Salim, Bani Yasyjab dan sebagainya.


Nabi Muhammad menghadapi perjuangan yang sukar untuk mengembangkan Islam di sesetengah masyarakat Quraisy yang mengagung-agungkan patung-patung berhala mereka. Namun dalam tempoh hampir 13 tahun itu juga kaum Quraisy berasa amat sukar untuk membendung perkembangan Islam walaupun mereka telah melakukan pelbagai tindakan. Perjuangan Nabi Muhammad tidak pernah mengenal erti kejayaan.